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Part availability and clarity are two focuses of the ShapeOko project. This page is your resource to find the descriptions and discussion links for each part you will need in order to build a ShapeOko mill. There is a B.O.M. for the SO2 at BOM_(SO2),[1] and for the SO3 at B.O.M.. Please see the Vendors page for a list of vendors. Discussion of sourcing a machine as affordably as possible here:

The following is a detailed list of parts required to build a ShapeOko CNC machine. In addition, there are a number of commodity items found in most hardware/home improvement stores which may be of use when building, upgrading or operating the machine (please see the list under Additional / Commodity Items below). Other parts, such as Stepper Motors, stepper drivers, power supplies, or microcontrollers are less likely to be found in a local store, and will probably have to be purchased from specialty shops or ordered from the online suppliers. Other parts, such as the open end plates and the motor mount plates were designed specifically for this project and are custom manufactured (but CAD files are available, and for the open end plates there are even instructions for making them with basic hand tools).

Source Files

Source files for the project are available:

and in at least one instance have been used to fashion a machine from scratch:

Previous versions are on opensource repositories such as Github:

There are also machine models in SketchUp format available in the Trimble 3D Warehouse:

and IGES and other formats:

and Autodesk:

See also MachineDesigner: How to design your own ShapeOko a (Windows) tool for (re)designing a machine, esp. useful for implementing and verifying upgrades.[3]

Shapeoko 3

XL and XXL versions and upgrade kits are also available from Carbide 3D. B.O.M. and

Mechanical Kit

Sparkfun: Mechanical kit

Maintenance Kit


  • Assembled V Wheels (16pcs)
  • 9mm Belts - specific to machine size (1 for x-axis, 2 for y-axis) --- these can be used to upgrade a 2015 machine to have 9mm belts
    • GT2 9mm, 6.35mm bore pulleys (3pcs)
    • GT2 6mm, 6.35mm bore pulley (1pc)
  • 6mm Z-axis belt (1pc)
    • GT2 6mm, 5mm bore pulley (1pc)
  • Eccentric Nuts (2pcs)
  • M5 x 18 Screws (2pcs)
  • M5 x 20 Screws (2pcs)


Note that the SO3, being a larger machine, uses some larger hardware.

Note: Part images shown below not to scale.


One of the most important aspects of a CNC mill is linear motion and the resultant need for parts to be in rigid, fixed relationships. One way to do that is w/ various sorts of spacers which are available in a myriad of sizes and a variety of materials.

If your kit is missing spacers, or they are unavailable in your locale, then a suitable stack of washers is a workable alternative.

Image Part Description CAD Data Sources
Spacer aluminum 38x516 12.svg
3/8" x 5/16" x #12 bore Aluminum Spacer Spacer used to clear space for the threaded rod between the Spindle Carriage Assembly and the Z-Assembly Carriage Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
Spacer nylon 5x10x1.svg
5mm x 10mm x 1mm thick, Nylon Spacer (PS20016) Spacer used for the M5 bolts (5mm is ~i.d.) holding the MakerSlide to the Z-axis Rail Assembly's Motor Mount Plates. Must match the thickness of the spacers below. Forum discussion on the spacers and alternatives in Re: Wave Disc Spring & Cutting MakerSlide. Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
Spacer nylon 3mmX8mmX1mm.svg
3mm x 8mm x 1mm thick, Nylon Spacer (PS20015) Spacer used for the M3 brass (3mm is ~i.d.) holding the Z-axis Rail Assembly's Motor Mount Plates to the motor (or NEMA 23 mounting plate) --- see note above. Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
3/8" x 1-1/4" x #12 bore, Aluminum Spacer A pair of spacers is used for each of the M5 x 70mm bolts in the Z-assembly Carriage --- providing slightly more space than the 53mm of spacing which was used in the SO1 Double MakerSlide upgrade they provide for space between the rails to run cables (~0.16").

Discussion of measurements and alternatives here.

Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
3/8" x 1" #12 Bore, Aluminum Spacer The other half of the pair. Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors


Commodity hardware used to make fasteners hold more securely and to prevent them from damaging the underlying surface. Note that spring / lock washers may be suited to some usages. Note that the SO3 also uses M6 hardware.

The Shapeoko 3 has begun using precision shims rather than the commodity part.

Image Part Description CAD Data Sources
M6 Flat Washer Inexpensive in packs of 100 or more at hardware or fastener stores. I.D. 6.62--6.4, O.D. 11.57--12, Thickness 1.4--1.8 Hardware store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
Washer flat m5.svg
M5 Flat Washer Inexpensive in packs of 100 or more at hardware or fastener stores.

Stacks of them can stand in for spacers, and if need be they make a suitable temporary stand-in for a precision shim in an idler wheel if one comes up short.

I.D. 5.3--5.48, O.D. 9.64--10, Thickness 0.9--1.1 (Form A)

Form B washers are also available, Thickness 0.75--0.8[4]

Hardware store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
M3 Flat Washer Potentially useful in stacks to wire up a hot end and create a heat sink which can be neatly wrapped up in Kapton tape. I.D. 3.2--3.38, O.D. 6.64--7, Thickness 0.45--0.55 Hardware store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors


For the most part, commodity hardware used to allow bolts to fasten. There are also specialty post-assembly insertion nuts which are designed to be inserted into MakerSlide slots (rather than the openings at each end of a rail) allowing one flexibility in the placement of parts after assembly.

Note that the SO3 also uses M6 hardware.

Image Part Description CAD Data Sources
Nut hex m5.svg
M5 Hex Nut One option is to grind these down so that they fit in the MakerSlide slots in lieu of the insertion nuts below.

Some have used nyloc nuts instead.[5]

McMaster-Carr Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
M6 Hex Nut Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
Nut hex m8.svg
M8 Hex Nut Used to hold the Z-axis threaded rod McMaster-Carr Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
M3 Hex Nut Used in Wiring Option #2 to fasten the Terminal Blocks Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
M5 insertion nut Used in MakerSlide to hold belt anchor clips and the Z-axis in place. See also post-assembly insertion nuts.

At need, a 3/16" carriage bolt can be used as a(n awkward) substitution.[6]

Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors


Threaded fasteners used to hold the machine together and attach accessories and components. Availability of specific lengths may be a constraint locally --- one option is to use the "ship-to-store" option of some chain stores.

The SO1 used socket head cap screws (SHCS) throughout, while the SO2 has switched to mostly button head caps screws (BHCS). The selected head is mostly a matter of price, convenience or style and doesn't affect the functionality so long as it doesn't interfere w/ the machine's motion.

Similarly, while black oxide is the finish used for the fasteners in current (and previous) kits, there's no especial reason for it other than cost / availability, and while hardware is available in a number of different grades, even the standard grade are more than strong enough.[7][8]

Three wire technique for measuring thread: [9]

Note that when securing a fastener, one must be careful to not overtorque or twist, or even bend it.[10]

Image Part Description CAD Data Sources
M3 x 8mm, SHCS Used to fasten NEMA 17 motors to the X- and Y- axis Motor Mount Carriage Plates. Accepts 2.50mm hex key. Normally head height is equal to diameter. Head diameter: 5.2--5.5mm Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
M3 12mm shcs.svg
M3 x 12mm, SHCS Used to fasten the standoff spacers for the Z-axis motor. Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
M3 x 16mm, SHCS Used in Wiring Option #2 to fasten the Terminal Blocks Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
M5 x 10mm Button Head Cap Screw Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
M5 12mm bhcs.svg
M5 x 12mm, BHCS (or SHCS) Originally, for the original ShapeOko an 8mm screw was specified, this was changed in later batches to 10mm, and the SO2 now uses 12mm to hold the MakerSlide to the end and motor mount plates. Larger machines may benefit from longer lengths. The eShapeOko uses 14 and 18mm by default.[11]. SHCS uses 4mm hex key. SHCS: Normally head height is equal to diameter. Head diameter: 8.14--8.5mm Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
M5 x 8mm Button Head Cap Screw Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
M5 12mm bhcs.svg
M5 x 20 mm Button Head Cap Screw Used to hold the V-wheels on the carriage motor plates and to secure the Z-axis Motor Mount Plate sub-assembly to the Z-axis Makerslide. Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
M5 30mm bhcs.svg
M5 x 30mm Button Head Cap Screw Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
M5 45mm shcs.svg
M5 x 45mm Socket Head Cap Screw Socket head is slightly more convenient, allowing initial fastening / loosening to be done by hand. Longer bolts can be used to facilitate some larger spindles. Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors
M5 x 70mm Button Head Cap Screw Hardware Store, Specialty Hardware Store, Specialty Vendors


The steel plates are laser cut and powder coated for the SO2 and SO3 (depending on the vendor, some parts may be punched on a turret press). Tolerance for the laser is (roughly) +/- .02mm - .10mm. The thickness of the powder coat is .08mm to .127mm. If the laser errs on the minus side and the powder coating is on the thicker side, it may be necessary to remove the powder coating with a file, sandpaper or other tool.[12]

Note that the Shapeoko 3 plates are made of 10 gauge (~3.42mm thick) steel.

Some production runs, depending on vendor may instead be punched out using a turret press (and other machines?).

Image Part Description CAD Data Sources
X/Y/Z Axis Rail MakerSlide Extrusion The Shapeoko originally used Makerslide, a linear motion rail system developed by Bart Dring. It is an aluminum extrusion (Aluminum 6105-T5) w/ an excellent combination of strength, functionality and price/performance ratio which combines both structure and a V-rail system. Since then, the Shapeoko 3 has changed to custom extrusions, a much heaver, 85mm x 55mm for the X- and Y- axes, and a specialized extrusion for the Z-axis.

Makerslide has the same basic profile as Misumi HFS5-2040 and one can add rail such as Openrail or V-groove rail as an alternative. See the Makerslide page for details.

The Shapeoko 3 uses a custom extrusion which does not readily match any existing profile. It is however possible to re-create it manually in a well-equipped shop:


PS3000.pdf --- 85x55 custom extrusion S3000 - Extrusion[13]

Specialty Vendors

Motor Mount Plate (12ga) Needs to be a minimum of .0747" (~2mm, 14ga) thick if made of steel for a small machine (the end plates on the original machine were 10ga mild steel[14]) [15]. Further discussion. 1/4" noted as being “overkill”[16]. The eShapeOko uses 2mm stainless steel (forum post on this and theorization about 3.175mm aluminum being enough in Re: New new end plates) --- confirmed by a machine on Reddit[17]. 6mm aluminum would be more rigid and lighter, but arguably not worth the extra expense.[18]

They may also be used as end plates as was done in: Marty's Shapeoko2 Deluxe.

Further discussion on plate thickness:!original/shapeoko/nNrzWk7CEdA/nzwZ75xw-kwJ (noted 16ga much too thin, and had specifics on 10, 12 and 14ga efforts) Engineering calculations for comparing one material w/ another: Further discussion at:

For convenience, the motor and limit switch holes may be threaded, eliminating the need for nuts.[19]

Files: Specialty Vendors
Spindle mount plate.svg
Spindle Mount Plate (12ga) Discussion of thickness regarding the SO3 plate: Specialty Vendors
Z-axis motor mount plate.svg
Z-Axis Motor Mount Plate (12ga) Specialty Vendors
Z-axis shim plate.svg
Z-Axis Shim Plate (12ga) Specialty Vendors
Spacer standoff m3 50 brass.svg
Standoff spacer M3 male x M3 female 50mm (PS20014) These simply need to provide a reasonable spacing for the coupler and sufficient rigidity to not cause undue flexing. The original machine used pairs of nylon spacers for each post, and a long M3 bolt, the initial iteration of the SO2 used pairs of single piece brass spacers, currently shipping kits use threaded aluminum hexagonal rod and M3 set screws. Specialty Vendors
End Plate (12ga) The original machine used end plates which reached from one Y-axis rail to the other, closing the machine in, hence the characterization of the new plates as "open".

AFK66 made a set out of 1/4" carbon structure plate.[21]

Files: Specialty Vendors
MDF wasteboard (1/2") (PS20001) One can instead use aluminum T-slot. 2 pieces of Misumi HFSQN4-15250-500 will perfectly fit an SO2.[22] Extensive discussion in Skip's Shapeoko 2 #3181

Alternately cast aluminum plate may be used: --- build-along of such a plate beings installed, along w/ order links and upgrades such as leveling feet: dvdsnyd's Shapeoko 3 #23 Upgrades and Custom Aluminum Table[23] Specialty Vendors

The Shapeoko 3 has an optional aluminum threaded table available from Carbide 3D: [24] [25]

20mm x 20mm x 550mm aluminum extrusion, black anodized Specialty Vendors

The Shapeoko uses M8 knobs as leveling feet. An alternative is: JW Winco 352-30-25-M8-S-55 Series GN 352 Rubber Type S Cylindrical Vibration and Shock Absorption Mount with Threaded Stud, Metric Size, 30mm Diameter, 25mm Height[26]

Engineering calculators


Linear motion is a fundamental aspect of CNC, and usually has two aspects, motion and guidance.

The Shapeoko project uses Belts and Pulleys (for motion) with custom V-rail extrusions (for guidance), and the early generations used M8 threaded rod for the Z-axis (Acme rod was a frequent upgrade). Options include:

  • Screws (with the balance of the axis on some sort of guide or rail)
    • Ball screws[29] --- these are designed to lessen friction[30]
    • trapezoidal leadscrews
    • screws --- normally used for fastening, these were used for the Z-axis on the stock SO1/2
  • Bearings[31]
  • Linear guides, slides, and actuators

Note that Delrin may be damaged by exposure to certain lubricants such as WD-40.[32]

All Axes

Delrin V-wheels w/ precision shims and bearings are used on all axes of movement. Previously provided as separate parts, they are pre-assembled in newer kits. Unfortunately, this prevents most people from assessing the parts tolerances prior to assembly --- out-of-spec parts usually manifest as a slight wobble or click when the machine moves. Discussion and solution: Z Plate movement - solved (for me anyway) and V-Wheel Washer Issues

Note that due to the reduction of wheels for the X-axis plate in the current SO3 design, it is especially important that the bearings for it be properly pre-loaded.[33]

Image Part Description CAD Data Sources
Delrin V-Wheels Note that there is a 1mm precision washer which goes in-between the two bearings. The specification for this part allows a bit of variance in the sizing. Forum discussions: Re: ACME screw upgrade for Shapeoko Z-Axis, and also see V-Wheel Precision Washer upgrade for your exacting CNC setup/

Please check your wheels after assembly to be certain that they work smoothly and that the bearings stay aligned. If you have any difficulties, check that the plate is flat, and that the washers are okay. If necessary, take the V-wheel apart and check that the bearing is seated all the way in and that there is no debris between the outer race of the bearing and the lip inside the V-wheel, because that could cause the bearing to twist (and seize) as the bolt was tightened. Sometimes, a bearing will get two rubber shields on one face -- check for that too.[34]

They are turned out of Delrin rod.[35] They may develop (temporary) flat spots if a machine sits idle, these will go away w/ usage.[36]

Adding additional wheels does not help as much as simply stiffening the part in question.[37]

Note that Delrin is an insulator and actually dissipates static electricity.

There are steel versions available, but they require matching rails and differing hole placement:

Files: Please check your V-wheels against the reported dimensions of your vendor and a CAD file before ordering. Shapeoko 3 seems to use different dimensions.

Included in the maintenance kit

Specialty Vendors

Alternative (note width differs[38]):

Reported as not working on Shapeoko 3:

(625-2RS) 5x16x5mm Bearings Sealed Miniature Ball Bearings. These are used in the Delrin V-wheels and Smooth Idler Wheels.

2RS indicates 2 rubber side shields. ZZ would indicate steel.

Bearings are rated by ABEC (Annular Bearing Engineers Committee) grades. Even the lowest, ABEC-1 bearings have a very low run-out (0.0003"), much less than the tolerance of the V-wheels or MakerSlide.[39]

Specialty Vendors

Hardware stores

Precision (Shim) Washers The 1mm precision washer goes in-between the two bearings in the Delrin V-wheels and Smooth Idler Drum. The specification for this part allows a bit of variance in the sizing. Forum discussions: Re: ACME screw upgrade for Shapeoko Z-Axis, and also see V-Wheel Precision Washer upgrade for your exacting CNC setup which includes a link to purchase them: Reactive Substance Storefront

For some batches of V-wheels the inner races are too narrow, some users have reported success replacing them with fiber washers (.032" thick, #10-ID x 3/8" OD 4.8 Fiber).

Alternately, to precisely and robustly space things: [40] and [41] --- Google Docs spreadsheet to calculate optimal arrangement[42] Instructions

Specialty Vendors


Eccentric Nut These are used to allow for fine adjustments of the Delrin V-wheels against the MakerSlide --- they include threads which allow them to function w/o the need for a normal nut. cf., Eccentric Spacers below. They add the need to rotate the bolt in unison w/ the nut when making adjustments so as to maintain the connection. See the Eccentric Nut Spacer Placement section of the MakerSlide page. Specialty Vendors
Eccentric Spacers These are used to allow for fine adjustments of the Delrin V-wheels against the MakerSlide. The original iteration used these in combination w/ a washer and nut, taking up more space, but allowing for simpler adjustment.

Note the standard design is intended for steel plates --- for plastic or aluminum: Amber Spyglass.

The cylindrical portion is termed a boss.[44]

Step-by-step instructions for fabrication: CNCzone: DIY Eccentric Spacers for less than 40c each

See also: Misumi: Eccentric Bushings Discussion

Files: Specialty Vendors

X- and Y-Axes

The ShapeOko 1 and 2 used belts, pulleys and idler wheels for motion along the X- and Y-axes, the Shapeoko 3 introduced a belt-driven Z-axis.

Image Part Description CAD Data Sources
Smooth Idler Wheel (Drum) The Shapeoko 3 uses a pair of flanged bearings ( ) instead. Files: Specialty Vendors
Fiberglass Clip Makerslide Belt Clip --- see also the first section of the Belt Anchors upgrade page. Files: Specialty Vendors
Pulleys GT2 pulleys 5mm bore x 3 or GT2 pulleys 1/4" bore x 3. The original ShapeOko used MXL belts and pulleys, but GT2 offers better performance and less backlash. Note that while the set screws should take a 1.5mm hex key, a 1/16", which is slightly larger may also work, and being a snugger fit, will allow for applying more torque. Alternately try a Torx bit?[45] Metric set screws are usually M3 and ~4.75mm long and available from hardware stores, or specialty vendors(robotdigg). If clearance is suitable an ordinary M3 may be used.[46]

Note that the original SO1/2 and early versions of the SO3 used 6mm wide belts and matching pulleys. Newer SO3s and XL/XXL units use 9mm wide belts --- see Belts and pulleys.

GrabCAD Specialty Hardware Stores, Specialty Vendors
Belting GT2 belting --- see Belt Lengths on the Scaling Up page for estimates on lengths needed for various machine sizes
  • 2mm pitch
  • 6.35 mm width (SO2 and initial SO3s) (at least one user has Upgraded to 9mm wide belts) and later runs of the SO3, and all XL and XXL units use 9mm wide belts.
  • Neoprene w/ Fiberglass Reinforcing Cords
  • 124 lb / 56kg Breaking Strength (more than half again for 9mm)
  • 6.25 lb / 2.8kg Working Tension (the CNC usage seems to require a greater than normal working tension with a commensurate decrease in longevity --- belts must be considered consumables regardless)
Specialty Hardware Stores, Specialty Vendors


Image Part Description CAD Data Sources
Coupler flexible 5mm--8mm.svg
Z-Axis Flexible Coupler 5mm--8mm bore A helical beam coupler, the helix allows it to join two rods which are not perfectly true to each other. Other styles may be used w/ various tradeoffs. Thingiverse: Step motor coupling Specialty Vendors
M8 x 1.25mm Threaded Rod Stainless Steel, 200mm (PS20011) The Shapeoko 1 used a 608ZZ Bearing 8x22x7[47] held in a Delrin or HDPE bearing plate.

Please note that this is a commodity part intended for fastening, so is not guaranteed to a high degree of precision (just enough to ensure that a nut will work anywhere along its length).[48] If you need precision, then you should test/evaluate before assembly (it may be that one end will be accurate enough).

Hardware Stores, Specialty Hardware Stores, Specialty Vendors
13mm x 35mm x 20mm Delrin Lead nut (PS20010) Hole is tapped to M8 x 1.25mm. There have been a number of machines which have had issues w/ the Z-axis nut. One solution is of course an ACME Z-axis. Forum user ejs decided on directly addressing the part itself in A new Z-axis nut - metal on metal w/ built in anti-backlash. File: Specialty Vendors
Bearing flanged 8x22x7.svg
8x22x7mm flanged bearing Specialty Hardware Stores, Specialty Vendors
Wave Disc Spring, .901" ID, 1.159" OD, .013" thickness (PS20017) Discussion of why this is needed and alternatives in Re: Wave Disc Spring & Cutting MakerSlide Specialty Hardware Stores, Specialty Vendors

The Shapeoko 3 uses a belt-driven Z-axis, requiring an endless loop 6mm wide GT2 belt. Belike this could be replaced by a length of belt and a clamp which could be affixed where the fixed pulley is placed.

The belt-driven Z-axis also requires a set of springs to keep the router from falling down to the wasteboard --- this requires a careful balancing of weight and spring tension. Measured data on this, and notes on replacement springs here:


Image Part Description CAD Data Sources
Universal Spindle Mount (PS20012) Note that this can easily be adapted to fit a wide range of spindle sizes by varying the length of screws used. The original machine used a muffler clamp, and making a new spindle mount is something of a rite of passage.

Min. thickness:

  • aluminum 0.5"
  • acetal (Delrin) 1.5"
File: Specialty Vendors
Universal Spindle Mount strap (PS20013) A mending bracket of suitable dimensions would be a reasonable alternative.

Some people have used pipe strapping.

File: Specialty Vendors
Spindle The stock spindle for the ShapeOko 1 and 2 is simply a basic rotary tool, for the 3, a Dewalt DWP611 --- any tool w/ at least 100 Watts of power (or 0.8 Amps @ 110VAC) should be workable. Edward R. Ford made some notes on spindle options on the forums and there is now a page which includes all currently documented spindles. Vote for your favorite ShapeOko 1/2 spindle solution! or Vote for your favorite Shapeoko 3 spindle solution Examples:


Please see the Electronics page for a brief overview of the different components.


Image Part Description CAD Data Sources
Stepper Motors The Shapeoko 2 uses NEMA 17 or NEMA 23 stepper motors with 58 oz./in. or more torque, w/in some reasonable weight, and up to a maximum of ~125 oz./in. Ideally current rating would be matched to the electronics, for a gshield, 1.7--2A.[49]

The Shapeoko 3 uses NEMA 23 stepper motors, 125, 200 steps/rev:

Files: Specialty Vendors


Image Part Description CAD Data Sources
Stepper Cable 18 or 20 gauge.[51] 4 (or more) conductor 18 gauge security cable is sold in bulk by the foot at most hardware stores, e.g., Home Depot's 18-4 CL3R Security Cbl Shld 1' @ 0.63, Part number 0000-249-865 Ed0345.18.10 <A>, listed in bulk on their site. Most larger hardware stores will have a carrel or rack near the electrical wiring area which has spools of wire which are sold by the foot. Note on the importance of secure wiring here: Re: Shielded cable or not

Shielded cable will include a "drain wire" which should be grounded at the controller end (some controllers will include a connector for this) --- the other end should be removed so as to preclude ground loops.

Cat5 Ethernet cable doubled up may work.[52], but the connectors aren't sturdy enough.[53]

Interesting potential (unshielded) is the wiring for LED strips.[54]

Another unshielded option Trailer wire: Hopkins PVC Primary 4-Wire Spool — 16 Gauge.[55]

Tool for calculating voltage drops for a given gauge of wire and distance: Voltage Drop Calculator[56]

Hardware Stores, Specialty Vendors
Terminal Blocks (2x4 type) Used in Wiring Option #2 for the Shapeoko 2. Electronics Stores, Hardware Stores, Specialty Vendors


Usually the Power Supply consists of 3 parts, a cord to connect to a wall outlet (this will vary based on locale as discussed at:, a transformer which converts AC to DC current of the appropriate voltage at a suitable amperage with a suitable number of Watts of power, and a wired connector which attaches to the control board.

Image Part Description CAD Data Sources
Power Pigtail (30313-01) The Shapeoko 2 used a Power Supply Adapter Cable/Connector-Adapter[59]: 5.5 mm x 2.5 mm Barrel Plug (Male by some descriptions, female in others --- Receptacle/socket seems to be the proper terminology[60]). Please note that this is a convenience, to provide a pair of raw wires to plug into the gShield, and a connector which maps up w/ that of the stock power supply for the SO2. It should have a central post (Male) which matches w/in that of the Output connector: 2.5mm x 5.5mm straight female center positive of the power supply[61]. Alternately, you may want to get a power supply which just provides screw terminals and accepts bare wires.

The equivalent Shapeoko 3 part is discussed at: --- a circular locking connector (except for the Sparkfun version). Connectors: [62]

Electronics Stores, Specialty Vendors
Power Supply The size of the power supply should be at least 3.75A at 24V for an SO2 with NEMA17 motors. A larger supply (for example, a 4.5A) will work fine, and is needed for a machine with NEMA23 motors such as an SO3. The size is based on the requirements of the stepper motors you choose. Power Supply discussion

The Shapeoko 2 full kit ships with a 90 Watt power supply. See the Electronics page for more details. If you can't source a Power Pigtail then it would probably be most expedient to source a power supply which has direct terminals for connecting wires to. Please see Power Supply to GRBL for a discussion of wire colour. Described as having a "Output connector: 2.5mm x 5.5mm straight female center positive"[66] which is more typically described as a "Jack"[67].

Electronics Stores, Specialty Vendors

Shapeoko 3/Nomad

Note that power supplies which do not work are also available such as:

  • --- has an excellent labeled image of the power connector, but won't work since the positive connectors need to be up against the flat as is shown
PS Cord Standard C13 cord with a NEMA 5-20 plug (in the U.S.) Electronics Stores


The microcontroller may be an all-in-one board such as an Azteeg X5 mini, or a pair of boards which fit together, one provides the logic (Controller Board), the other the high-voltage control circuitry (Stepper Shield), depending upon one's needs and budget.

Microcontrollers are defined by:

  • which firmware(s) they can run (the default for the Shapeoko in milling mode is Grbl)
  • how many axes they can control (by default, a Shapeoko needs 3, X-, Y- and Z-axes, one may add additional axes, or extruder(s) for 3D printing)

Image Part Description CAD Data Sources
Controller board Arduino. Any Arduino 328P compatible board should work. Multiple vendors sell these boards, and price varies by vendor and features. Other control systems can be used, such as the Azteeg X5 mini which is a good option if one wishes to do 3D printing, see Advanced Electronics for other options. Electronics Stores, Specialty Vendors
Stepper driver board gShield. The shield is an expansion board which plugs into a controller board and provides an input for the higher voltage needed to drive the stepper motor and the electronics for controlling the stepper motors.

Will either include, or need stepper drivers.

An all-in-one board will incorporate stepper drivers and will not need a separate shield for them.

Another alternative would be to use the RAMPS board w/ Grbl: Grbl for RAMPS.

Specialty Vendors

Arduino CNC Shield

USB Cable

End Mills

End mills must be considered a consumable item, and can be a significant portion of one's CNC budget. See the Endmills: Specific Bit and Brand Recommendations on the Endmills page for some specific end mill suggestions and the Vendors page for a potential places to purchase from.

Additional / Commodity Items

There are a number of other items which one may need or will find useful:

  • Extra M3 and M5 washers --- these are pricey in low quantities, and are generally useful
  • Lock washers (Note especially their suggested use for “Tensioning the Machine” in Assembly troubleshooting) and other miscellaneous hardware, esp. for Belt Anchors
  • M5 socket cap screw assortment --- automotive stores usually have a plastic organizer filled w/ various sizes --- saves a lot of time and gas and cash if you do much upgrading
  • Zip ties or other fasteners
  • Cable Management system
  • End mills
  • Material for an electronic enclosure
  • Some way to cool the stepper drivers such as a fan and/or heat sinks

Thread on this here: What else should I have on hand?